Research Alert

BACKGROUND: Clinical evidence on the safety and effectiveness of using direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in patients with atrial fibrillation after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) remains limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the trends and outcomes of using DOACs in patients with TAVR and atrial fibrillation.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from the STS/ACC TVT (Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapy) Registry was used to identify patients who underwent successful TAVR with preexisting or incident atrial fibrillation who were discharged on oral anticoagulation between January 2013 and May 2018. Patients with a mechanical valve, valve-in-valve procedure, or prior stroke within a year were excluded. The adjusted primary outcome was 1-year stroke events. The adjusted secondary outcomes included bleeding, intracranial hemorrhage, and death. A total of 21 131 patients were included in the study (13 004 TAVR patients were discharged on a vitamin K antagonist and 8127 were discharged on DOACs.) The use of DOACs increased 5.5-fold from 2013 to 2018. The 1-year incidence of stroke was comparable between DOAC-treated patients and vitamin K antagonist-treated patients (2.51% versus 2.37%; hazard ratio [HR], 1.00; 95% CI, 0.81–1.23) whereas DOAC-treated patients had lower 1-year incidence of any bleeding (11.9% versus 15.0%; HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.75–0.89), intracranial hemorrhage (0.33% versus 0.59%; HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.33–0.87), and death (15.8% versus 18.2%; HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.85–1.00).

CONCLUSIONS: In patients with TAVR and atrial fibrillation, DOAC use, when compared with vitamin K antagonists, was associated with comparable stroke risk and significantly lower risks of bleeding, intracranial hemorrhage, and death at 1 year.

Journal Link: Journal of the American Heart Association

Register for reporter access to contact details

Journal of the American Heart Association